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What is Bariatric Surgery?
Bariatric Surgery is a group of Laparoscopic procedures done on morbidly obese patients for achieving and maintaining significant weight loss and marked improvement in obesity related illnesses.
Is Bariatric Surgery liposuction or plastic surgery?
No. Instead, it is a group of laparoscopic procedures involving stomach and intestines, resulting in reduced calorie intake and absorption. This eventually leads to significant and sustained loss of excess body weight.
What are the common Bariatric Surgery procedures?
They are classified as:
  (a) Restrictive procedures
  e.g. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG): It is the commonest procedure especially in Asia. It is a vertical gastrectomy that leaves a narrow gastric tube along the lesser curvature of the stomach and has been accepted as a primary procedure for morbid obese patients recently because of its simplicity and effectiveness.
  (b) Malabsorptive / Combined
  e.g. (1) Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB): Here stomach is converted into a small pouch and anastomosed to proximal intestine, thus bypassing greater part of stomach and proximal intestine, resulting in calorie restriction and malabsorption. (2) Mini Gastric Bypass(MGB): Here, there is an important recent change of technique from two anastomosis Roux-en-Y Bypass to single loop anastomosis technique. The elimination of one anastomosis may reduce operative time and decrease the possibility of surgically related complication.
What is the type of anesthesia required?
These procedures are done under General Anesthesia.
What is the duration of hospital stay?
On an average, about 3 to 5 days.
When can I go back to work?
After about 1 week, depending on your type of work and any comorbidities, if any.
What result can I expect?
  You can expect weight loss of about 60 to 85% of excess body weight and good improvement in comorbidities, if any.
What will be the diet after surgery?
  Liquid diet is advised for the first week and semisolid/mashed diet for the second week. This is followed by regular diet in reduced quantities as advised by the dietician.
What are the complications/risks involved?
  The most important technique change in bariatric/metabolic surgery is from open surgery to laparoscopic surgery. Improvement in technology and experience has dramatically improved the safety of this procedure. Recent reports have confirmed that bariatric/metabolic surgery can be performed as safe as laparoscopic cholecystectomy with operation mortality around 0.1%. Compications are relatively uncommon and can include bleeding, anastomotic/staple line leaks, stricture, venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction(heart attack) etc. In the case of gastric bypass, there can be dumping syndrome and malabsorption.
Any long term medications required?
  In the case of gastric bypass, lifelong supplementation of multivitamins and minerals is needed. In restrictive procedures like sleeve gastrectomy only short term supplementation is usually required.
Gastric Bypass
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